Chapter 1. The Gathering Storm: Events Culminating in the Watergate Break-in

1 Bob Woodward, Interview of Alexander Haig, November 6, 1997.
2 G. Gordon Liddy, Will, the Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy (St. Martin’s Press, 1980), 145–146.

Chapter 2. The Watergate Break-in: Tempting the Deep State

3 Nina Burleigh, A Very Private Woman (New York: Bantam Books, 1998) Chap. 1, as appeared in the New York Times, https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/books/first/b/burleigh-private.html.
4 Liddy, Will, the Autobiography of G. Gordon Liddy, 196–200.
5 Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, “GOP Security Aide Among Five Arrested in Bugging Affair,” Washington Post, July 19, 1972, https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/gop-security-aide-among-five-arrestedin-bugging-affair/2012/06/07/gJQAYTdzKV_story.html.
6 See National Archives: https://search.archives.gov/search?query=-Nixon%27s+Daily+Diaries&submit=&utf8=&affiliate=national-archives.
7 Wikipedia, “Cable 243,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable_243.
8 The Testimony of L. Patrick Gray, United States District Court for the District of Columbia Grandy Jury, July 19, 1973, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70106030.pdf, p. 101.
9 See e.g., Fred D. Thompson, At That Point in Time, The Inside Story of the Senate Watergate Committee (New York: The New York Times Book Company, 1975); Jim Hougan, Secret Agenda: Watergate, Deep Throat, and the CIA (Random House, 1984); Len Colodny and R. Gettlin, Silent Coup: The Removal of a President (St. Martin’s Press, 1991).

Chapter 3. Origins of the Cover-up

10 Silbert Memo to Petersen, “Prosecutive Memorandum re Watergate Break-in, June 17, 1972,” September 13, 1972.

Chapter 4. Sirica’s Search for “Truth”: The Break-in Trial

11 Renata Adler, “A Court of No Appeal,” Harper’s, August 2000, https://harpers.org/archive/2000/08/a-court-of-no-appeal/.
12 Anthony Gaughan, “Watergate, Judge Sirica, and the Rule of Law,” HeinOnline, 2010, https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/mcglr42&div=21&id=&page=.
13 Jeff Himmelman, Yours in Truth: A Personal Portrait of Ben Bradlee (Random House, 2012), 207.
14 John Sirica, To Set the Record Straight: The Break-in, the Tapes, the Conspirators, the Pardon (W.W. Norton & Company, 1979), 38.
15 Samuel Dash, Chief Counsel, Inside the Ervin Committee—The Untold Story of Watergate (Random House, 1976), 27.
16 United States v. Ammidown, 497 F.2d 615 (D.C. Cir. 1974), https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/497/615/220738/.
17 Lacovara Memo to Messrs. Glanzer and Geller, “Hunt Appeal,” January 28, 1974.

Chapter 5. Dean Switches Sides: The Collapse of the Cover-up

18 Notation of the Recording of the Meeting Between the President and Messrs. Dean and Haldeman on March 21, 1973 from 10:12 to 11:55 A.M., https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105908.pdf.
19 Ibid., 15–16.
20 Notation of the Recording of the Meeting Between the President and Messrs. Dean, Ehrlichman and Haldeman on March 21, 1073, from 5.20 to 6:01 P.M., https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105924.pdf.
21 Notation of the Recording of the Meeting Between the President and Messrs. Dean, Ehrlichman, Haldeman and Mitchell on March 22, 1973, from 1:57 to 3:43 P.M. https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105944.pdf.
22 John Dean, Blind Ambition: The White House Years (Simon & Schuster, 1976), 253.

Chapter 6. Nixon Cleans House: Senior Staff Casualties

23 Top page of handwritten notes by Judith Denny, labeled 10/10/73 Rient—Denny Meeting with Glanzer and Campbell. Glanzer’s office, 10:00 A.M.–Noon.
24 Lacovara Memo to Henry Ruth, “Gordon Liddy’s Continuing Refusal to Testify,” April 30, 1974.
25 Peter Rient and Judith Denny Memo, “Meetings with Seymour Glanzer and Donald Campbell, September 18 and October 10, 1973,” November 15, 1973.
26 United States v. DeMarco, 407 F. Supp. 107 (C.D. Cal. 1975): https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/407/107/2281061/.

Chapter 7. Cox’s Army: The Watergate Special Prosecution Force

27 Robert H. Jackson, “The Federal Prosecutor,” Journal of the American Judicature Society, (Vol. 24: Robert H. Jackson Center), https://www.roberthjackson.org/speech-and-writing/the-federal-prosecutor/.
28 George Higgins, The Friends of Richard Nixon (Little, Brown and Company, 1975), 259–267.
29 John A. Farrell, Tip O’Neill and the Democratic Century: A Biography (Little, Brown and Co., 2001), 355.
30 In Re Sealed Case, 838 F.2d 476 (1988). https://openjurist.org/838/f2d/476/in-re-sealed-case.
31 Ibid., 51.
32 Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/487/654/
33 William Merrill, Watergate Prosecutor (Michigan State University Press, 2008), 5–6.

Chapter 8. The Ervin Committee: Conduct of a Legislative Trial

34 A Brian Lapping Associates Production for the Discovery Channeland BBC (1994), Vol. 3: The Fall of a President.

Chapter 9. Butterfield Spills the Beans: Revelation of Nixon’s Taping System

35 Colodny and Gettlin, Silent Coup, 334–335.
36 Woodward Interview of Haig, November 11, 1997.
37 Richard Nixon, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Grosset & Dunlap, 1978), 902–903.
38 Richard Weinberg Memo to Archibald Cox, “The President,” August 24, 1973, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105874.pdf.
39 Nixon v. Sirica, 487 F2d 700 (D.C. Cir. 1973). https://openjurist.org/487/f2d/700/nixon-v-j-sirica-united-states.
40 Rient and Denny, “Files”, November 15, 1973.
41 Ibid., 2–3.
42 Ibid., 5.
43 Ibid., 6.
44 Ibid.
45 Ibid., 7.
46 Ibid.
47 Ibid.
48 Ibid., 14.
49 Ibid.
50 Ibid., 15–16.
51 Ibid., 10.
52 Ibid., 12.
53 Ibid., 13.
54 Ibid., 17.
55 Denny handwritten notes of 10/10/73.
56 Rient and Denny, “Files,” November 15, 1973, p. 23.
57 Geoff Shepard, The Secret Plot to Make Ted Kennedy President (Penguin Sentinel, 2008), 158–163.
58 See Douglas H. Ginsburg and Donald Falk, “The Court En Banc: 1981–1990,” George Washington Law Review 59, No. 5 ( June 1991): 1008.
59 Jack Hamann, On American Soil, How Justice Became a Casualty of World War II (Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2005).
60 Woodward Interview of Fred Buzhardt, 1975.

Chapter 11. The Eighteen-Minute Gap: An Unresolved Conundrum

61 John Dean, The Nixon Defense: What He Knew and When He Knew It (Penguin Viking, 2014), Appendix A.
62 See Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall: The Legal Case Against the Watergate Conspirators (Simon and Schuster, 1977), 209; and Leon Jaworski, The Right and the Power, The Prosecution of Watergate (Reader’s Digest Press, 1976), 45–53.
63 Rient, Memo to Ben-Veniste, “Material Discrepancies Between the Senate Select Committee Testimony of John Dean and the Tapes of Dean’s Meetings with the President,” February 6, 1974.
64 “Dean Disbarred in Virginia for ‘Unethical’ Acts,” New York Times (Feb. 7, 1974), https://www.nytimes.com/1974/02/07/archives/dean-disbarred-in-virginia-for-unethical-acts.html.
65 Unsigned Memo, dated February 12/1974, showing Jaworski initials and those of his secretary (LJ/flc), labeled CONFIDENTIAL, with handwritten notation “or my Conf. Watergate File.”

Chapter 12. Indict and Impeach: Jaworski Gets Rolled

66 From an unsigned memo in Jaworski’s files, which contains the precise quote. https://www.newspapers.com/image/381808232/?terms=Ronald%20Ziegler&match=1.
67 Jaworski Letter to Ronald Ziegler, December 4, 1973.
68 Three-page unsigned memo, labeled MEMORANDUM TO HENRY RUTH, marked DRAFT, showing Jaworski’s initials and those of his secretary (LJ/flc), dated 1/21/74, found in Jaworski’s Confidential Watergate File.
69 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 212–214.
70 Lacovara Memo to Jaworski, “Criminal Responsibility for Joining Ongoing Conspiracy,” January 7, 1974.
71 Jaworski Memo to Ruth, no subject, but marked CONFIDENTIAL, January 8, 1974, p. 2.
72 Jaworski Memo to Ruth, January 21, 1974, p. 1.
73 Jaworski Memo to Ruth, January 14, 1974.
74 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 217.
75 Ibid., 228.
76 Feldbaum et al Memo to Jaworski, “Recommendation for Action by Watergate Grand Jury,” February 12, 1974. p. 4. “For us or the grand jury to shirk from an appropriate expression of our honest assessment of the evidence of the President’s guilt would not only be a departure from our responsibilities but a dangerous precedent damaging to the rule of law.”
77 Jill Wine-Banks, The Watergate Girl (Henry Holt & Company, 2020), 142–143.
78 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 254.
79 Four-page undated and unsigned memo from Jaworski’s Confidential Watergate Files, pp. 1–2.
80 United States v. DeMarco, 401 F. Supp. 505 (C.D. Cal. 1975). https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/401/505/1604776/.
81 Watergate, Chronology of a Crisis (Congressional Quarterly, 1975), “Grand Jury Names Nixon Co-Conspirator,” p. 653.

Chapter 13. The Road Map: The Secret Report that Sank Nixon

82 Frampton, Nixon Prosecutive Report prepared for sharing with HJC, June 28, 1974, “SECOND DRAFT,” p. 12, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70106088.pdf.
83 Recording of the Meeting Between the President and Messrs. Dean and Haldeman on March 21, 1973 from 10:12 to 11:55 A.M., https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid70105908.pdf, p. 35.
84 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 212.
85 Ibid., 214.
86 Ibid., 215.
87 Ibid., 215–216.
88 Frampton Memo to Ruth, “Richard M. Nixon, February 22,1975, 1–2.
89 “Prosecutive Report,” GTF [George T. Frampton], 1/7/74. The copy posted online by the National Archives, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105884.pdf, shows a date hand-changed to 2/7/74, but the memo is unchanged from the original date of the copy in the author’s possession.
90 Frampton “Prosecutive Report,” 1/7/74 (Draft), pp. 76–80.
91 Transcript of a Recording of a Meeting Among the President, John Dean, and H,R, Haldeman in the Oval Office, March 21, 1973, from 10;12 to 11:55 A.M., [https://www.nixonlibrary.gov/sites/default/files/forresearchers/find/tapes/watergate/trial/exhibit_12.pdf ].
92 United States District Court for the District of Columbia v. Richard M. Nixon Preliminary Draft , 2/1/1974, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105876.pdf.
93 Jaworski Memo to Ruth, January 14, 1974, beginning “I feel the existence of a void on our staff in that there is no one with sufficient defense experience to counsel us on matters pertaining to that function.”
94 Lacovara Memo to Jaworski, “Presentment by Watergate Grand Jury Concerning the President,” January 21, 1974, p. 1.
95 Ibid.
96 Jaworski Memo to Confidential Watergate File, February 12, 1974, p. 1.
97 Ibid., p. 2.
98 James Doyle, Not Above the Law, The Battles of Watergate Prosecutors Cox and Jaworski (William Morrow and Company, 1977), 290–291.
99 Woodward Interview of Jaworski, December 5, 1974.

Chapter 14. Nixon Unveiled: How Releasing the Tape Transcripts Backfired

100 Richard Nixon, Submissions of Recorded Presidential Conversations to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives by President Richard Nixon (Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, April 30, 1974), 1–50.
101 Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, “Transcripts
of Eight Recorded Presidential Conversations,” May–June, 1974.
102 Ibid., p. 183.
103 Ibid.

Chapter 16. The House Impeachment Inquiry: Congress Piles On

104 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 241–242.
105 Jerry Zeifman, Without Honor: The Impeachment of Richard Nixon and the Crimes of Camelot (Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1995).
106 Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct: Including Accusations of High Crimes and Misdemeanors from George Washington to Lyndon Johnson (Delacorte Press, 1974). The front cover of the book reads “An Authoritative History Requested by John Doar for the Impeachment Inquiry Staff Investigating Charges Against Richard M. Nixon”: https://www.amazon.com/Responses-Presidents-Charges-Misconduct-Woodward/
dp/0440059232/ref=sr_1_1?crid=2BVWSU72UHXZJ&D.C.hild=1&keywords=responses+of+the+presidents+to+charges+of+misconduct&qid=1591747863&s=books&sprefix=responses+of+the+pre%-
2Caps%2C162&sr=1-1.
107 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 285–286.
108 Ibid., 286.
109 Ibid., 286–87.
110 Frampton, SECOND DRAFT, p. iii.
111 Ibid., p. 12.
112 Ibid., pp. 16–17.
113 Ibid., p. 59.
114 Woodward Interview with Jaworski, December 5, 1974.
115 Ibid.

Chapter 17. Nixon’s Demise: Two Weeks That Changed the World

116 WSPF Report, p. 54.
117 Nixon, Memoirs, 1055.
118 Jeff Himmelman, Yours in Truth, a Personal Portrait of Ben Bradlee (Random House, 2012), 212.
119 Nixon, Memoirs, 1057.
120 “Statement Announcing Availability of Additional Transcripts of Presidential Tape Recordings,” August 5, 1974, Public Papers of President Nixon, 1974, US Government Printing Office, 1975, p. 621.
121 Lacovara Memo to Jaworski, “Decision Concerning Richard M. Nixon,” August 21, 1974, p. 1.
122 Lacovara Letter to Jaworski, September 9, 1974, p. 2.
123 Lacovara Memo to Jaworski, “Validity of Pardon of Former President Nixon,’ September 13, 1974.
124 Jaworski Memo to Ruth, Sept. 14, 1974.
125 Taken from a copy of NPR transcript contained in Jaworski’s Confidential Watergate Files at Archives II.

Chapter 18. The Cover-up Trial: Prosecuting Nixon in Absentia

126 United States v. DeMarco, 407 F Supp. 107, https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/407/107/2281061/.
127 Mitchell v. Sirica, 502 F2d 375 (D.C. Cir. 1974), https://casetext.com/case/mitchell-v-sirica].
128 Lacovara, Memo to Jaworski, Ruth, Neal and Ben-Veniste, “Motion to Recuse Judge Sirica in Watergate Case,” July 23, 1974. [Emphasis added.]
129 John Ehrlichman, Sketches and Notes, Washington 1969–1975 (Cerro Gordo Publishing Co., 1987), 36.
130 Ben-Veniste and Frampton, Stonewall, 107.
131 Ibid.
132 Sirica, To Set the Record Straight, 270–271.
133 See Haldeman Brief on Appeal, United States v. Haldeman, 559 F2d 31 (D.C. Cir. 1976).
134 Ibid., MacKinnon dissent.
135 Mitchell v. Sirica, 502 F2d 375 (D.C. Cir. 1974), https://casetext.com/case/mitchell-v-sirica.
136 United States v. Mitchell, 385 F. Supp. 1190 (D. C. Cir., 1974).
137 See Mitchell v. Sirica, WSPF Reply Brief, filed May 20, 1974.
138 Haldeman v. Sirica, 501 F2d 714 (D.C. Cir. 1974), http://openjurist.org/501/f2d/714/haldeman-v-j-sirica-c-strachan.
139 Woodward Interview with Jaworski, December 5, 1974.
140 Frampton, “Dean’s Anticipated Trial Testimony—From the Beginning Up Until March 21, 1974,” July 22, 1974, p 69.
141 “John Dean, Sequence of Testimony,” undated, p. 44.
142 Cover-up Trial Transcript, p. 2364.
143 Cover-up Trial Transcript, pp. 6726–28.
144 Cover-up Trial Transcript, p. 6785.
145 Respondent’s Brief, U.S. v. Haldeman, 559 F2d 31 (1976).
146 Dean, Blind Ambition, p. 377–78.
147 United States v. Mardian, 546 F2d 973 (D. C. Cir. 1976), https://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/546/546.F2d.973.75-1383.html
148 Maurice Stans, Terrors of Justice, 212.
149 Cover-up Trial Transcript, p. 6984.
150 Watergate, Chronology of a Crisis (Congressional Quarterly, 1975), 89-A–90-A.
151 Gray, In Nixon’s Web, 77 and 86.
152 Silbert Memo to Petersen, “Prosecutive Memorandum re Watergate Break-in, June 17, 1974”, September 13, 1972, p. 21.
153 Dean, The Nixon Defense: What He Knew and When He Knew It (Penguin Viking, 2014), footnote at 55–56.
154 In Re Kutler Petition, Misc. No. 10-547 (RCL).
155 Road map, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf.
156 “Jaworski Road Map to be Mostly Unsealed,” Stephen Bates, Jack Goldsmith, Benjamin Wittes, Lawfare (October 15, 2018), https://www.lawfareblog.com/jaworski-road-map-be-mostly-unsealed.
157 Report and Recommendation of the June 5, 1972 Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid70105890.pdf, p. 5.
158 Ibid., p. 7.
159 The testimony of John Ehrlichman to the full quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (September 13, 1973), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105902.pdf.
160 The testimony of John W. Dean, III , presented to the full quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (February 14 1974), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105906.pdf.
161 Report and Recommendation concerning transmission of evidence to the House of Representatives, United States District Court for the District of Columbia ( June 5, 192), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf, p. 18.
162 The testimony of Egil Krough, Jr. presented to the full quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia ( January 29, 1974), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105948.pdf.
163 Report and Recommendation concerning transmission of evidence to the House of Representatives, United States District Court for the District of Columbia ( June 5, 1972), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf, p. 11.
164 Ibid., p. 13.
165 Ibid., p. 14.
166 Ibid.
167 Ibid., p. 24.
168 Ibid., p. 28.
169 Ibid, p. 40.
170 Ibid., p. 42.
171 The testimony of L. Patrick Gray in the presence of the full quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia ( July 19, 1973), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70106030.pdf, p. 103.
172 “The President’s Press Conference of August 22, 1973,” Public Papers of President Nixon, 1973 (US Government Printing Office, 1975), 710–725.
173 Ibid., “Statements About the Watergate Investigation,” May 22,1973, 547–555.
174 Report and Recommendation concerning transmission of evidence to the House of Representatives, United States District Court for the District of Columbia ( June 5, 1972), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf, p. 43.
175 The testimony of John Ehrlichman presented to the quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court for the District of Columbia (September 13, 1973), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70106032.pdf.
176 https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf, p. 57.
177 Ibid., p. 58.
178 Report and Recommendation concerning transmission of evidence to the House of Representatives, United States District Court of the District of Columbia ( June 5, 1972), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70106076.pdf
179 Report and Recommendation concerning transmission of evidence to the House of Representatives, United States District Court of the District of Columbia ( June 5, 1972), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105890.pdf
180 Ibid., p. 12.
181 https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/ roadmap/docid-70105916.pdf.
182 The testimony of Fred LaRue in the presence of the full quorum of the Grand Jury, United States District Court of the District of Columbia (February 13, 1974), https://www.archives.gov/files/research/investigations/watergate/roadmap/docid-70105926.pdf.
183 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Adventure of Silver Blaze, a short story first published in The Strand Magazine (December 1892).
184 Frampton Memo to Ruth, “Richard M. Nixon,” February 22, 1975.
185 Ibid., p. 21.
186 Ibid., p. 24.
187 Ibid.
188 FINAL REPORT CHAPTER 4B: ACTIONS RELATED TO PRESIDENT NIXON’S POSSIBLE CRIMINAL LIABILITY, SECOND DRAFT, 7/21/75, CBF [Carl B Feldbaum].
189 Ibid., p. 1.
190 Ibid., p. 3.
191 See www.trialonthepotomac.com.